분자유전학실험실 (단국대학교 분자생물학과)



 이성욱 ( 2018-06-13 17:34:12 , Hit : 168
 CRISPR Efficiency Tied to Cancer-Causing Process

https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/54794/title/CRISPR-Efficiency-Tied-to-Cancer-Causing-Process/&utm_campaign=TS_DAILY%20NEWSLETTER_2018&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=63687496&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-8OtofOxr87lLrqBtFxWVvFnWeEH_or6eBHi3IEPcC1E2Pv3B33-FQPtBT2H2v-QQsRncqq6KNUcgxbwpgO3KczAT-hBA&_hsmi=63687496/

The Scientist »
The Nutshell

Two studies find the genome-editing technique works best when cells have a faulty DNA-damage response that’s frequently present in cancers.  

By Kerry Grens | June 11, 2018


CRISPR doesn’t work very well in human cells whose DNA-damage response is working normally. Instead, the genome-editing method selects for cells with a faulty response—one tied to cancer, according to two studies published today (June 11) in Nature Medicine.

“It’s something we need to pay attention to, especially as CRISPR expands to more diseases,” Sam Kulkarni, the CEO of CRISPR Therapeutics, which was not involved with either study, tells STAT News. “We need to do the work and make sure edited cells returned to patients don’t become cancerous.”

In one study, researchers found that the inhibition of p53, which organizes a DNA damage response, made CRISPR more efficient in a human cell line. “However, inhibition of p53 leaves the cell transiently vulnerable to the introduction of chromosomal rearrangements and other tumorigenic mutations,” they write in their report. This means that the cells in which CRISPR worked may have a compromised p53 pathway, which would in turn make them vulnerable to becoming cancerous.

Separate experiments by investigators from Novartis found that human pluripotent stem cells often succumbed to the double-strand breaks caused by Cas9 during genome editing, and this was due to p53 likely prompting cells to self destruct. “Our results indicate that Cas9 toxicity creates an obstacle to the high-throughput use of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome engineering and screening in hPSCs,” they write in their study. In other words, CRISPR is preferentially killing off cells whose p53 pathway is intact, leaving behind cells with p53 disabled and therefore at risk of turning into a tumor if given to a patient.

See “Was a Drop in CRISPR Firms’ Stock Warranted?”

In response to the papers, stocks of companies developing CRISPR tumbled. Business Insider reports that shares of CRISPR Therapeutics, Editas Medicine, and Intellia Therapeutics dropped by 15 percent, 7 percent, and 8 percent, respectively.

It’s not clear whether the freak-out is warranted. As STAT notes, the Novartis paper has been available as a preprint for months; the studies only looked at Cas9 and not other nucleases; and the p53 issue doesn’t appear to apply to cutting out genes, only to replacing them.

“We don’t want to sound alarmist, and are not saying that CRISPR-Cas9 is bad or dangerous. This is clearly going to be a major tool for use in medicine, so it’s important to pay attention to potential safety concerns,” University of Cambridge’s Jussi Taipale, a coauthor of one of the studies, says in a press release. “Like with any medical treatment, there are always side effects or potential harm from treatment and this should be balanced against the benefits of the treatment.”







1266   [바이오토픽] 변이가 많은 암일수록 면역요법에 잘 반응한다  이성욱 2019/01/15 7
1265   Exosomes Linked to Cancer Spread from Chemoresistant Tumors in Mice  이성욱 2019/01/15 6
1264   Top 10 RNA-Based Biopharmas of 2018  이성욱 2019/01/09 46
1263   Fathers Can Pass Mitochondrial DNA to Children  이성욱 2018/12/26 26
1262   Nonviral CRISPR Technology Developed for Faster, Cheaper T-Cell Engineering  이성욱 2018/12/13 48
1261   Second CRISPR-Modified Pregnancy May Be Underway  이성욱 2018/11/30 66
1260   Human Genome Editing Committee Urges Halt in Germline Editing Trials  이성욱 2018/11/30 56
1259   [바이오토픽] 중국, 최초의 유전체편집 아기 탄생  이성욱 2018/11/27 52
1258   Keytruda Gets FDA Approval for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  이성욱 2018/11/14 76
1257   Novel Two-Pronged Method Targets Cancer Cells’ Telomerase and Chromosomes  이성욱 2018/11/03 69
1256   Expanding the reach of gene editing with a new CRISPR enzyme  이성욱 2018/10/26 74
1255   분자수준 인체 간세포 지도 처음 작성  이성욱 2018/10/24 61
1254   RNA-Based Gene Therapy Can Be Turned ON or OFF via Synbio Switches  이성욱 2018/10/18 63
1253   CRISPR Enhancement Cures Genetic Disease in Mice  이성욱 2018/10/10 62
1252   [바이오토픽] 구관이 명관, CRISPR가 만능은 아니다  이성욱 2018/10/08 92
1251   Checkpoint Inhibitor Generated by Synthetic DNA in Vivo  이성욱 2018/10/06 60
1250   Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith, and Gregory P. Winter share 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry  이성욱 2018/10/04 57
1249   Immunotherapy Pioneers Take 2018 Nobel Prize  이성욱 2018/10/02 56
1248   2018 Lasker Award Winners: Gene Expression Researchers, Propofol Discoverer, Pioneer for RNA Biology, and Women in STEM  이성욱 2018/09/12 87
1247   [바이오토픽] CRISPR 특허전쟁 항소심, 브로드 연구소 승리  이성욱 2018/09/11 78

1 [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]..[64] [다음 10개]
 

Copyright 1999-2019 Zeroboard / skin by ROBIN