분자유전학실험실 (단국대학교 분자생물학과)



 이성욱 ( 2013-04-23 22:14:14 , Hit : 3059
 A pathogenic picornavirus acquires an envelope by hijacking cellular membranes

Nature
Volume:
496,
Pages:
367–371
Date published:
(18 April 2013)
DOI:
doi:10.1038/nature12029


Animal viruses are broadly categorized structurally by the presence or absence of an envelope composed of a lipid-bilayer membrane1, attributes that profoundly affect stability, transmission and immune recognition. Among those lacking an envelope, the Picornaviridae are a large and diverse family of positive-strand RNA viruses that includes hepatitis A virus (HAV), an ancient human pathogen that remains a common cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis2, 3, 4. HAV infects in a stealth-like manner and replicates efficiently in the liver5. Virus-specific antibodies appear only after 3–4 weeks of infection, and typically herald its resolution3, 4. Although unexplained mechanistically, both anti-HAV antibody and inactivated whole-virus vaccines prevent disease when administered as late as 2 weeks after exposure6, when virus replication is well established in the liver5. Here we show that HAV released from cells is cloaked in host-derived membranes, thereby protecting the virion from antibody-mediated neutralization. These enveloped viruses (‘eHAV’) resemble exosomes7, small vesicles that are increasingly recognized to be important in intercellular communications. They are fully infectious, sensitive to extraction with chloroform, and circulate in the blood of infected humans. Their biogenesis is dependent on host proteins associated with endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)8, namely VPS4B and ALIX. Whereas the hijacking of membranes by HAV facilitates escape from neutralizing antibodies and probably promotes virus spread within the liver, anti-capsid antibodies restrict replication after infection with eHAV, suggesting a possible explanation for prophylaxis after exposure. Membrane hijacking by HAV blurs the classic distinction between ‘enveloped’ and ‘non-enveloped’ viruses and has broad implications for mechanisms of viral egress from infected cells as well as host immune responses.







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