분자유전학실험실 (단국대학교 분자생물학과)



 이성욱 ( 2016-03-23 12:58:51 , Hit : 937
 RNA May Surpass DNA in Precision Medicine


GEN News Highlights

Mar 22, 2016
  

Scientists based at the Translational Genomics Research Institute have published a review heralding the promise of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for precision medicine. The scientists also note that progress will be needed on analytical, bioinformatics, and regulatory fronts, particularly in light of the transcriptome’s variety, dynamism, and wealth of detail. In this image, one aspect of RNA-seq is shown, the alignment with intron-split short reads. It reflects the alignment of mRNA sequence obtained via high-throughput sequencing and the expected behavior of the alignment to the reference genome when the read falls in an exon–exon junction. [Rgocs, Wikipedia]


It’s not an either/or situation. Both DNA sequencing and RNA sequencing hold clinical promise—diagnostically, prognostically, and therapeutically. It must be said, however, that RNA sequencing reflects the dynamic nature of gene expression, shifting with the vagaries of health and disease. Also, RNA sequencing captures more biochemical complexity, in the sense that it allows for the detection of a wide variety of RNA species, including mRNA, noncoding RNA, pathogen RNA, chimeric gene fusions, transcript isoforms, and splice variants, and provides the capability to quantify known, predefined RNA species and rare RNA transcript variants within a sample.

All these potential advantages were cited in a paper that appeared March 21 in Nature Reviews Genetics, in an article entitled, “Translating RNA Sequencing into Clinical Diagnostics: Opportunities and Challenges.” The paper, contributed by scientists based at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), was definitely optimistic about the clinical utility of RNA sequencing, but it also highlighted the advances that would have to occur if RNA sequencing is to achieve its promise.

In general, the very things that make RNA sequencing so interesting are the same things that make it so challenging. RNA sequencing would take the measure of a world—the transcriptome—that is incredibly rich. To capture all the relevant subtleties of the transcriptome, scientists will have to develop sensitive, precise, and trustworthy analytical techniques. What’s more, scientists will need to find efficient and reliable means of processing and interpreting all of the transcriptome data they will collect. Finally, they will need to continue integrating RNA-based knowledge with DNA-based knowledge. That is, RNA sequencing results can be used to guide the interpretation of DNA sequencing results.

In their Nature Reviews Genetics paper, the TGen scientists review the state of RNA sequencing and offer specific recommendations to enhance its clinical utility. The TGen scientists make a special point about the promise held by extracellular RNA (exRNA). Because exRNA can be monitored by simply taking a blood sample, as opposed to taking a tumor biopsy, it could serve as a noninvasive diagnostic indicator of disease.

“Detection of gene fusions and differential expression of known disease-causing transcripts by RNA-seq represent some of the most immediate opportunities,” wrote the authors. “However, it is the diversity of RNA species detected through RNA-seq that holds new promise for the multi-faceted clinical applicability of RNA-based measures, including the potential of extracellular RNAs as non-invasive diagnostic indicators of disease.”

The first test measuring exRNA was released earlier this year, the paper said, for use measuring specific exRNAs in lung cancer patients. And, the potential for using RNA-seq in cancer is expanding rapidly. Commercial RNA-seq tests are now available, and they provide the opportunity for clinicians to profile cancer more comprehensively and use this information to guide treatment selection for their patients.

In addition, the authors reported on several recent applications for RNA-seq in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases, such as monitoring for drug-resistant populations during therapy and tracking the origin and spread of the Ebola virus.

Despite these advances, the authors also sounded a few cautionary notes. “There are currently few agreed upon methods for isolation or quantitative measurements and a current lack of quality controls that can be used to test platform accuracy and sample preparation quality,” they wrote. “Analytical, bioinformatics, and regulatory challenges exist, and ongoing efforts toward the establishment of benchmark standards, assay optimization for clinical conditions and demonstration of assay reproducibility are required to expand the clinical utility of RNA-seq.”

Overall, the authors remain hopeful that precision medicine will embrace RNA sequencing. For example, lead author Sara Byron, research assistant professor in TGen's Center for Translational Innovation, said, "RNA is a dynamic and diverse biomolecule with an essential role in numerous biological processes. From a molecular diagnostic standpoint, RNA-based measurements have the potential for broad application across diverse areas of human health, including disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic selection.”







1207   Cancer Onset May Be Caused by Immune System Fighting Viruses  이성욱 2017/08/25 872
1206   Resistance to HIV Engineered Via CRISPR  이성욱 2017/08/07 880
1205   Zika Update  이성욱 2016/03/15 884
1204   [바이오토픽] 드디어 올 것이 왔다: CRISPR, 생존가능 인간배아의 질병초래 유전자 교정 성공  이성욱 2017/08/03 886
1203   “유전자 치료 법률 금지 한국 유일” vs “생명체 설계도 바꾸는 건 문제”  이성욱 2017/08/28 890
1202   CRISPR Corrects RNA-based Disease Defects  이성욱 2017/08/14 894
1201   [바이오토픽] 중국, 최초의 유전체편집 아기 탄생  이성욱 2018/11/27 903
1200   CRISPR Fixes Stem Cells Harboring Blindness-Causing Defect  이성욱 2016/02/01 907
1199   First In Vivo Human Genome Editing to Be Tested in New Clinical Trial  이성욱 2017/05/18 911
1198   [바이오토픽] FDA 자문위원회, CAR-T(chimeric antigen receptor T cell) 승인 만장일치로 권고  이성욱 2017/07/14 919
1197   ‘단세포 인공생명체’ 눈앞에 성큼  이성욱 2017/03/11 921
1196   유전자치료제 '인보사' 연골재생 입증못해도 허가받은 까닭  이성욱 2017/07/14 925
1195   CRISPR Can Tag RNA  이성욱 2016/03/26 930
1194   Engineered Human Liver Tissue Grows in Mice  이성욱 2017/07/25 930
1193   Revisiting CAR T-Cells for Treating HIV Shows Promise  이성욱 2016/07/19 932
1192   독감바이러스의 ‘RNA 도둑질’  이성욱 2017/05/08 933
  RNA May Surpass DNA in Precision Medicine  이성욱 2016/03/23 937
1190   UPDATE 2-Gilead experimental drug fights all forms of hep C: data  이성욱 2015/09/24 940
1189   노벨 생리의학상 유감(有感)  이성욱 2015/10/06 940
1188   Editas Expands CRISPR Capabilities through New Technology Licensing  이성욱 2016/12/22 940

[1][2][3] 4 [5][6][7][8][9][10]..[64] [다음 10개]
 

Copyright 1999-2024 Zeroboard / skin by ROBIN