분자유전학실험실 (단국대학교 분자생물학과)



 이성욱 ( 2016-12-10 14:16:13 , Hit : 884
 RNA Modification Helps Drosophila Straighten Up and Fly Right

GEN News Highlights

December 9, 2016

Absent a certain RNA modification, the flies folded their wings askew, lost their sense of direction, and wafted about listlessly—more listlessly than is ordinary. The RNA modification that the flies lacked is called m6A, which refers to the methylation of the nitrogen at position 6 of the adenosine base within messenger RNA (mRNA). The wobbly flies? They were part of a molecularly impaired squadron of Drosophila that had been prepared by scientists at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB) and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU).

The scientists, led by IMB researcher Jean-Yves Roignant, Ph.D., suggest that the m6A RNA modification is important for brain function. They add that since m6A is found in vertebrates as well as in flies, it could also affect brain function in humans.

The scientists presented their findings December 8 in the journal Nature, in an article entitled, “m6A Modulates Neuronal Functions and Sex Determination in Drosophila.” As the title indicates, the scientists didn’t limit their investigation to functions of the nervous system related to locomotion. They also determined that m6A is important to fine-tune sex determination, that is, whether a fly develops as male or female.

“Here we carry out a comprehensive molecular and physiological characterization of the individual components of the methyltransferase complex, as well as of the YTH domain-containing nuclear reader protein in Drosophila melanogaster,” wrote the authors of the Nature article. “We identify the member of the split ends protein family, Spenito, as a novel bona fide subunit of the methyltransferase complex.”

The study enriches our understanding of a recently discovered phenomenon, that RNA modifications are abundant on mRNA. These modifications are roughly analogous to the kinds of modifications that are found on DNA and give rise to epigenetic effects, changes in transcription that do not require alterations in underlying gene sequences. Similarly, RNA modifications may give rise to epitranscriptomic effects, changes in translation that do not require alterations in the underlying gene transcripts.

For our bodies to function normally, it is important for genes to be turned on or off in the right cells at the right times. It is already well established that DNA modifications are important to regulate the activity of genes. These molecular marks on the DNA act as signals to the cell machinery that converts the information contained within a gene into a protein, and help determine how a particular gene is regulated. These signals can be added and removed, which changes whether genes are active or inactive.

Many different modifications have also been identified on RNA, but what they do in vivo was not well understood. m6A is the most prevalent of these RNA modifications, and scientists have shown that it can be added and removed in an analogous way to DNA modifications.

"The discovery that RNA modifications are so abundant on mRNAs was not anticipated until a few years ago,” noted Dr. Roignant. “To my view this is one of the most exciting discoveries in the field in the last 15 years. Our study now sheds light on what they do in living organisms.”

The present publication is the first comprehensive study investigating the role of all components involved in the biogenesis of the m6A RNA modification in a multicellular organism.

“We further demonstrate important roles of this complex in neuronal functions and sex determination, and implicate the nuclear YT521-B protein as a main m6A effector in these processes,” the study’s authors continued. “Altogether, our work substantially extends our knowledge of m6A biology, demonstrating the crucial functions of this modification in fundamental processes within the context of the whole animal.”

The current study is likely to prompt additional work in the emerging field of RNA modifications, or epitranscriptomics. “Now we have found that m6A is there and that it is important for neuronal functions, we want to understand more about its precise role,” said Tina Lence, a Ph.D. student in the Roignant laboratory at IMB and first author of the Nature paper. “For example, is m6A important in all circumstances, or is it more involved in the fine-tuning of gene expression or in response to changes in the environment?”








1167   Scientists unveil CRISPR-based diagnostic platform  이성욱 2017/04/14 811
1166   [사이언스 카페] 美 FDA, 민간업체의 '개인용 유전자 검사' 첫 허용  이성욱 2017/04/10 794
1165   암 전이에 핵심 역할하는 줄기세포 찾았다  이성욱 2017/04/03 1161
1164   ‘단세포 인공생명체’ 눈앞에 성큼  이성욱 2017/03/11 792
1163   Beyond CRISPR Cuts: Five Complements To Cas9  이성욱 2017/02/24 984
1162   Smallest CRISPR So Far Comes from Food Poisoning Bacteria  이성욱 2017/02/24 922
1161   CRISPR Turbocharges CAR T Cells, Boosts Cancer Immunotherapy  이성욱 2017/02/24 1288
1160   [바이오토픽] 브로드 연구소, 열띤 CRISPR 특허전쟁에서 승리  이성욱 2017/02/16 1056
1159   Judges Side with Broad Institute in CRISPR Patent Dispute  이성욱 2017/02/16 952
1158   미국 과학·공학·의학 아카데미, 「GM 베이비」의 진행방향에 대한 윤곽 발표  이성욱 2017/02/16 1068
1157   Nano-CRISPR Packages Attain 90% Delivery Rate with Engineered Cas9  이성욱 2017/02/09 1323
1156   유전자 치료로 청력 되살린다  이성욱 2017/02/08 1346
1155   바이러스들도 서로 소통..“상황에 따라 감염방식 결정”  이성욱 2017/01/24 1129
1154   Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Near Approval  이성욱 2017/01/10 1165
1153   Off Switch Found for Common Version of the CRISPR-Cas9 System  이성욱 2017/01/02 992
1152   Editas Expands CRISPR Capabilities through New Technology Licensing  이성욱 2016/12/22 817
  RNA Modification Helps Drosophila Straighten Up and Fly Right  이성욱 2016/12/10 884
1150   Anti-CRISPR Protein Is Gene Editing “Off-Switch”  이성욱 2016/12/10 1888
1149   Could Gene Therapy Work for Alzheimer’s Disease?  이성욱 2016/10/12 1155
1148   EU, 2번째 유전자치료제 ‘스트림벨리스’ 승인  이성욱 2016/09/05 1144

[1][2][3][4][5] 6 [7][8][9][10]..[64] [다음 10개]
 

Copyright 1999-2021 Zeroboard / skin by ROBIN